Bioavailability explained

There are many reasons why we may want to take CBD-rich hemp extracts, whether it be to improve symptoms of a chronic condition or just for general health maintenance and well-being. In all cases, we want to get as much out of every dose as possible. For this, the bioavailability of CBD and other cannabinoids must be maximized. Bioavailability means how much of a substance is able to enter the bloodstream unchanged.

Maximizing Bioavailability

So how can we maximize bioavailability? When a drug is given intravenously (IV), the bioavailability is 100, because it gets past barriers such as the intestinal wall and liver metabolism. When a medicine is taken orally, it may not be absorbed through the intestines because of insufficient time. Being highly water-soluble or not dissolving enough are two reasons why a drug may take longer to be absorbed. Poor digestion, binding to other substances, or use by the intestinal bacteria are other reasons why it may not be absorbed. After a nutrient, medicine, or something else is absorbed from your gut into the bloodstream, it passes through the liver. In the liver, a portion of an absorbed substance is metabolized (changed), which makes the affected substance more water-soluble. This is to prepare it for the next time it enters the liver, where it is readied for excretion.

All about sublingual administration

So what does sublingual mean, and what does it have to do with bioavailability? Sublingual administration of medicines is when it is designed for absorption under the tongue, not in the stomach and intestines like food. “Sub” means “under”, and “lingual” means “relating to the tongue.” As this also means direct transfer into the blood, it avoids issues relating to the intestinal barrier. These include the inability to be absorbed, interaction with other nutrients or drugs, or use by normal intestinal bacteria. It also avoids being directly shuttled to the liver and resulting in changes to its structure.

Of course, CBD is also vulnerable to issues that can affect intestinal absorption, as well as being processed by the liver. Because of this, a small study in 2003 set out to find any differences in the bioavailability of CBD and THC when taken in different ways. The dosage methods tested were oral, oro-pharyngeal (throat), buccal (inside of the cheek) and sublingual. When CBD was taken sublingually, the half-life was 86 minutes, while oral use had a half-life of 65 minutes. The term “half-life” means the time taken for half of the tested substance to be removed from the body.

Another measure of bioavailability, known as “area under the curve” (AUC), also showed a superior score for sublingual CBD. The two AUC scores for sublingual use were 408.53 and 427.33. However, the scores for oral use were 345.68 and 362.04. The AUC measurement shows the total exposure of the body to medicine once it is given. Therefore, a higher AUC can mean a greater potential to be effective.

Liposomes offer increased bioavailability

Liposomal hemp extracts may be even more bioavailable, as the type of fat that the hemp extract would be surrounded by can enable easy, efficient absorption. While more human trials are needed, sublingual CBD and CBD-rich hemp extracts may be better than taking a regular capsule, as it could bypass many obstacles between the cannabinoids and their intended destination.

Further reading:

Oral Cannabis Benefits

Crohn’s Disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the lining of the digestive tract. Another form of chronic inflammatory bowel disease is ulcerative colitis (UC). Both of these diseases can be extremely debilitating and can affect the patient’s quality of life. Both of these forms of IBD are classified as autoimmune diseases. This means the body’s immune system essentially attacks itself, causing severe inflammation (in this case, in the GI tract). There is currently no cure for inflammatory bowel disease; treatments are geared towards the resolution or minimization of symptoms. Many prescription drug treatments work by weakening the patient’s immune system to reduce flare-ups. Unfortunately, these medications can cause side effects that include infections that can be life-threatening, since the body’s immune system is being weakened and can’t fight off these infections.

Instead of weakening the immune system, we have seen great success in patients who use CBD oil to help with symptoms of Crohn’s Disease and ulcerative colitis. CBD has great anti-inflammatory properties, and is able to exert these anti-inflammatory effects in the GI tract when CBD oil is taken by mouth. Patients report reduction in the frequency of flare-ups, less severe flare-ups, fewer stools per day, and improvements in weight gain. Because CBD is also used to improve mental health, patients with Crohn’s Disease also report a reduction in depression symptoms associated with their disease.

“I’ve been using CBD oil for over 5 months now. I’ve been diagnosed with Crohn’s for 7 years and only been in remission for less than 3 years on and off. The main treatment is pharmaceutical drugs usually mixed in with steroid treatment when things get real bad. I’ve had not only little success in treating it with the drugs, but the side effects have been just as bad as the Crohn’s symptoms. The more research I did, the more I started to come across CBD oil in treatment options for Crohn’s. Within 2 weeks, I noticed significant inflammation reduction in my GI system which has led to higher quality of life and fewer symptoms from Crohn’s/UC that were really limiting my day-to-day life. I have been basically able to return to a “normal life”, increased sleep, no pain, and solid digestion patterns. I would certainly recommend this product for anyone dealing with these issues.” -B.H.

Talk to us today to see if CBD oil is right for your Crohn’s Disease or Ulcerative Colitis symptoms. We look forward to helping you live healthier through hemp!

Cannabis Alleviates Symptoms Of Crohn’s Disease

Cannabis Finds Its Way into Treatment of Crohn’s Disease

Cannabis Induces a Clinical Response in Patients With Crohn’s Disease – A Prospective Placebo – Controlled Study

How Science Supports the Benefits

Whole-plant extract contains cannabinoids, which are chemical compounds within the hemp plant that have been reported, both from anecdotal evidence and pre-clinical studies, to offer relief from a multitude of ailments.

Structurally, cannabinoids resemble endocannabinoids which are compounds our bodies naturally produce to balance and control communication between cells as well as promote cellular health.

Preliminary research suggests that many unpleasant symptoms and diseases occur when a deficiency or other problem impacts the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The primary function of the ECS is to maintain homeostasis. It allows cells to communicate with other cells and their external environment and facilitates cells doing whatever is necessary to be healthy. Cannabinoids have been shown to bind to a number of different receptor sites in the brain and body, and have different effects based on which receptors they bind to and how they interact.

The most well-known receptor interactions are those between cannabinoids and CB1 and CB2 receptors, which are the primary receptors in the ECS. CB1 receptors are concentrated in the brain and central nervous system while CB2 receptors are concentrated in the peripheral immune system.

CB1 receptors regulate:

  • Learning and memory
  • Neuronal development and synaptic plasticity
  • Reward and addiction
  • Pain
  • Neuroinflammation and degeneration
  • Metabolism and food intake
  • Bone mass
  • Cardiovascular effects

CB2 receptors regulate:

  • Allergic and autoimmune inflammatory disease
  • Osteoporosis
  • Neurodegenerative disease
  • Ischemic injury from stroke or heart attack
  • Chronic pain
  • Hepatic injury and disease
  • Alcohol and nicotine addiction
  • Weight gain
  • Stress response

Receptors function at a base level of activity. When cannabinoids, like those found in activated hemp extract, bind to these receptors, the receptors either do more or less of what they were doing.  For example, inflammation is a common cause of discomfort. When cannabinoids interact with CB2 receptors, some studies indicate that it reduces the inflammatory response. It has also been reported that activated hemp extract interacts with CB2 receptors on cancer cells by recognizing these cells are not healthy and initiating apoptosis (a sequence of biochemical reactions that results in cell death).

With an increasing understanding of the effects of cannabinoids, patients can now tailor their cannabinoid therapy regimen to the type of relief they need.

Learn More About Hemp

Whole-plant hemp extract is a combination of the most prevalent therapeutic, activated compounds in the hemp plant. It offers numerous benefits without altering your mental state. For decades, medical professionals and the general public overlooked hemp extract because other plant remedies took center stage.

Now, the medicinal potential of hemp extract has made its way to mainstream audiences. Pre-clinical trials over the past four decades have found that cannabinoids, like those found in hemp extract, show the potential to be a natural anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotectant, antidepressant, along with many other benefits.

2-AG:  an ester formed from the arachidonic acid and glycerol that occurs naturally in the brain and is a CB1 receptor agonist; one of the two known endocannabinoids.

Agricultural Hemp: refers to varieties of the Cannabis Sativa L. plant that contains less than 0.3 THC in the dry weight material, and is grown for industrial purposes.

Anandamide: a derivative of arachidonic acid that occurs naturally in the brain (as well as some foods) and acts as a messenger molecule, playing roles in appetite, depression, memory, and fertility; one of the two known endocannabinoids.

Cannabis Sativa L.: a species of plant in the Cannabis genus; refers to both agricultural hemp and marijuana.

CB1: cannabinoid receptor found primarily in the central nervous system (nerves in the brain and spinal cord).

CB2: cannabinoid receptor found primarily in the peripheral nervous system (nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord).

CBC: short for cannabichromene; a phytocannabinoid found in cannabis that has little to no intoxicating effects.

CBD: short for cannabidiol; a phytocannabinoid found in the cannabis; does not result in euphoria and has shown to have benefits on human and animal health.

CBD-A: short for cannabidiolic-acid; an acidic cannabinoid, the naturally occurring raw form of CBD that is produced directly in the plant.

CBG: short for cannabigerol; known as the “parent cannabinoid” and is the chemical precursor to THC and CBD.

CBN: short for cannabinol; a phytocannabinoid found in cannabis; it is produced when THC is metabolized and has little to no intoxicating effects.

Chlorophyll: refers to groups of green pigmented molecules found in plants and algae, that is important for plant photosynthesis.

CO2 Extraction: method used to extract our CBD oil concentrates; CO2 gas is pressurized into a safe liquid and used to extract oils from plants with the advantage of no solvent residue.

Decarboxylation: removing a carboxyl group from a chemical compound; the process used to convert the CBD-A in raw CBD oil to a CBD total plant complex.

Distilled oil: refers to some formulations of CBD that contain the highest concentration of CBD; this is the ultimate step in refining CBD oil, where excess plant material is distilled the total plant complex in a solvent-free process.

Endocannabinoid: naturally occurring cannabinoids in the human body.

Endocannabinoid System: refers to endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their production and degradation, and their receptors.

Endogenous: self-made; originating from within an organism.

Entourage Effect: refers to the idea that biologically active compounds can have enhanced biological activity when administered in combination with otherwise inactive compounds as opposed to isolated active compounds administered alone.

Fatty Acid: long hydrocarbon chain, with a carboxyl group (COOH) at the end; important part of the fat-soluble components of living cells (lipids).

Hemptourage Effect: refers to the “entourage effect” of compounds present in hemp-derived CBD oil to optimize health and wellness.

Homeostasis: self-regulating process of any system in the body; your body automatically finding balance.

Non-psychotoxic: does not have a detrimental effect on the mind, personality or behavior; does not get you “high.”

Phytocannabinoid: plant-based cannabinoids found in species of cannabis.

Plant Sterol: cholesterol-like compounds that are naturally occurring in plants.

Raw oil: a whole-plant CO2 extraction from agricultural hemp; Cannabidiolic Acid, or CBD-A, comprises a significant proportion of the extracted cannabinoids in the raw oil.

THC: short for tetrahydrocannabinol; a phytocannabinoid found in cannabis shown to have some benefits on human and animal health, however, is responsible for intoxicating effects (i.e., the “high”) associated with marijuana use.

Terpene: a large and diverse class of strong smelling organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants and insects.

Vitamin E: also known as  alpha-tocopherol, a fat-soluble vitamin important for normal cell growth and function; found in vegetable oils, egg yolk, and some CBD oil products.

Cannabidiol, or CBD, is a promising phytocannabinoid found in agricultural hemp. It has been recognized for its benefits on human and animal health and is capable of affecting nearly every biological process. CBD is non-psychotoxic (i.e. it does not result in feelings of euphoria) and has a remarkable safety profile.

Plus CBD Oil is derived from agricultural hemp and provides cannabinoids, naturally occurring vitamin E and fatty acids.

Phytocannabinoids like CBD, of which well over 100 have been found to exist, are plant derivatives that ‘talk’ to just about every major organ system in the body via the endocannabinoid system (ECS), helping restore normal balance and physiologic homeostasis.


So what does it mean to literally have a cannabinoid system inside the body? It means that we were designed to regularly supply our ECS with the nutrients it was designed for, in support of vital communications between the control centers of the body and every other system.

However, due to the governmental regulation of hemp and cannabis over the last 80 years, most humans living today have gone their entire lives without feeding their bodies these raw materials.

Imagine a large orchestra, and the members being made to play their instruments while blind-folded. They can’t see the conductor and they can’t read the music. Sometimes they get it right, but most of the time it’s a mess. This is your body without the nutrients provided by hemp. Bringing the body back into harmony could be as simple as replacing this lost nutrition.

Sometimes called the ‘whole plant’ or ‘entourage effect,’ cannabis offers a complex biochemical matrix of many of the constituents in cannabis working synergistically. But it leaves behind other compounds that are only available when you eat the entire plant.

Our PlusCBD Oil™ products provide even more broad-spectrum nutrition, exerting a synergistic, ”HempTourage effect,” because they include over 500 distinct compounds including:

Phytocannabinoids, Fatty Acids, Terpenes, Plant Sterols, Chlorophyll and Vitamin E

Cannabidiol (CBD) is the most predominant cannabinoid in hemp and has many beneficial properties.

In its patent (#6,630,507) titled CANNABINOIDS AS ANTIOXIDANTS AND NEUROPROTECTANTS, the U.S. Federal Government makes many impressive claims about CBD, stating that:

  • “Cannabinoids are potent antioxidants… they easily penetrate tissues giving them the ability to enter the central nervous system and brain.”
  • “Non-psychoactive cannabinoids such as CBD are particularly advantageous as they are non-toxic… and exhibit unique antioxidant properties without the undesirable effects of THC.”
  • “The antioxidant strength of CBD is significantly greater than that of either Vitamin C or Vitamin E.”

Is CBD Oil Right For You?

We cannot make any specific claims as to the benefits of CBD. The benefits of hemp are well documented, however. CBD Oil products are made with CBD that is derived from agricultural hemp. Hemp has several benefits: it is nutrient-rich, non-psychotoxic, eco-friendly and good for the earth.

Nutrient-rich – Hemp contains excellent nutritional value, providing essential nutritional components called Essential Fatty acids that the human body does not produce naturally, and must be consumed by the diet. Further, emerging scientific research supports the consumption of CBD from hemp oil for general well-being.
Non-psychotoxic – Agricultural hemp keeps you healthy, doesn’t get you “high.”
Eco-friendly – Not only is hemp renewable and fast-growing, but nearly every part of the plant is also usable – for food, fiber, building materials, and fuel, with an estimated 25,000 uses!
Good for the earth – Hemp sequesters CO2 and doesn’t need herbicides to thrive. It also leaves the soil in better condition than before it was planted.

The growth of public interest in CBD and CBD Oil products around the world and in the United States is undeniably large. CBD Oil continues to gain visibility and prominence as more consumers try CBD products. Many people have described their experience taking CBD Oil products as feeling contented, clear-headed, and composed.

Try CBD so that you can decide for yourself if CBD is right for you.

Why No One Has Ever Died From Hemp

There is one place in the body where there is no endocannabinoid system and no cannabinoid receptors – the brain stem. The brain stem is the control center for the heart and breathing. This means that it is not possible for cannabinoids to overwhelm those systems and cause them to shut down. This is why, in more than 4,000 years, no one has ever died from consuming hemp.

Inflammation is a process by which the body’s white blood cells and substances they produce protect us from infection with foreign organisms, such as bacteria and viruses. Inflammation also occurs as a result of injury. This is why your throat swells up when you have strep throat, or your skin gets red and hot after a bug bite.

However, in some diseases, like arthritis, the body’s defense system – the immune system – triggers an inflammatory response when there are no foreign invaders to fight off. In these diseases, called autoimmune diseases, the body’s normally protective immune system causes damage to its own tissues. The body responds as if normal tissues are infected or somehow abnormal.

Inflammation can happen in many different disease states, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease (like Crohn’s Disease or ulcerative colitis), and many others. CBD oil may help with symptoms of these diseases by exerting anti-inflammatory effects on different parts of the body.

Depending on the type of inflammation that you’re experiencing, you may choose to use different dosage forms of CBD oil. For example, if you have arthritis pain and inflammation in one joint, you may choose to use one of our ointments or balms. If you’re experiencing inflammation due to arthritis all over your body, then you may choose to take CBD oil as a liquid sublingually (under your tongue). I recommend oral always and using ointments to supplement pain in one joint. Pain and inflammation generally need 25-75 mg per day. Joint pain is on the lower end of the range and back pain on the higher end of the range. Start low(5-10mg) at bedtime and work your way to twice a day after 3 days then every 3 days work up gradually your twice-daily dosing. Remember to start low, work up slowly, and give it 2-12 weeks for relief.  All of our dosing suggestions are based on research and patient feedback in the farmacy. Read more about dosing and the different dosage forms here.

There have been many reports of the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD oil, some of which you may view here:

Anti-inflammatory Potential of CB1-mediated CAMP Elevation in Mast Cells

Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs

Cannabinoids mediate opposing effects on inflammation-induced intestinal permeability

Clinical Implications for Cannabinoid Use in the Rheumatic Diseases

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder marked by sudden recurrent episodes of sensory disturbance, loss of consciousness, or convulsions, associated with abnormal electrical activity in the brain.

Recently, cannabidiol has been suggested as a potential alternative therapy for refractory epilepsy, which affects 30 of epilepsy, both adults and children, who do not respond to current medications. There is a large unmet medical need for new anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) that would not interfere with normal function in patients with refractory epilepsy and conditions associated with refractory seizures. Cannabidiol (CBD) is the major non-psychoactive component of marijuana.

IMPORTANT: Before starting treatment with CBD for epilepsy, we strongly recommend discussing this option with your (or your child’s) doctor. While CBD has shown benefit in patients with epilepsy, you should continue to take your current medications as prescribed. In epileptic patients, CBD should only be started under the supervision of a licensed healthcare provider.

Ask your doctor today if CBD is right for you or your loved one with epilepsy. We look forward to helping you live healthier through hemp!

You may find some additional information below:

Anti-Epileptic Drug Interactions

Interactions between cannabidiol and commonly used antiepileptic drugs

The Pharmacological Basis of Cannabis Therapy for Epilepsy

Epidiolex (Cannabidiol) in Treatment Resistant Epilepsy

The newest dramatic increased prevalence rates of autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) recall the urgent need to find a definitive cure, as well as find for a specific biomarker for early diagnosis. Recently, several studies highlight a key involvement of the endocannabinoid (EC) system in autism pathophysiology.

Autism, or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), refers to a range of conditions characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech, and nonverbal communication, as well as by unique strengths and differences. The exact cause of ASD is unknown but is believed to be caused by a “perfect storm” of environmental and genetic factors. Certain aspects of ASD may be caused by inflammation, which makes patients with ASD great candidates to try CBD oil.

Preliminary research in rat models suggests that the endocannabinoid system may play a role in autism. This may help explain why CBD is beneficial in patients with ASD. In addition, CBD oil may help with anxiety that patients with autism frequently experience associated with changes in routine. 

Relive Everyday Assure Gummies contain an all-natural, high quality, broad-spectrum hemp extract. They’re specially formulated into heart-shaped gummies that are perfect for anyone who has sensitivities to taste or texture! They have received the Autism Approved seal from the Autism Hope Alliance for their commitment to being socially responsible to the autism community.

Talk to us today to see if CBD oil is right for your loved ones with ASD. We look forward to helping you live healthier through hemp!